|This is an early-15th-century Persian copy of the opening page of Book Four of Ibn Sina's (Avicenna) Canon of Medicine, written in the 11th century, parts of which were used in European medical schools as late as the 19th century.|
Dangling in the southern winter sky and very visible from my balcony in Naples is the great equatorial constellation of Orion. The second brightest star in that constellation is the red supergiant, Betelgeuse. (This is the first of a few familiar names coming up that no one knows how to pronounce. Another one is "Averroës.") Betelgeuse is 390 light years from my balcony and, thus, remote from the various fields of human conflict that are responsible for my knowing neither the pronunciation nor the original name of the star; thus, our high school astronomy club's cutesy mnemonic of "Beetle Juice." I don't recall ever learning that the name came from the Arabic bayt al jauza, meaning "in the house of the twins," referring to the Heavenly Twins, Castor and Pollux, hanging out right above Orion.
Speaking of high school, I
did not do well in mathematics, but I am willing to give
Al-Khwarizmi (known to us as Algorizm!) (770 - 840) his
credit if he takes a bit of my blame. I will take all
the blame for not knowing who Chaucer was talking about
in the Canterbury Tales, when, in
praising the knowledge of the doctor on the trip, he
reminded us that ye olde pilgrim sawbones was familiar
not only with Hippocrates and Galen, but "Rhazes, Hali,
Averroës and Avicenna."
It is convenient,
but not a good idea, to pigeonhole our own cultural
history into tidy episodes: The Renaissance, The Age of
Reason, The Enlightenment, The This & That, as if
they had happened all of a sudden with no connection to
anything else, as if Leonardo woke up one fine morning
in 1500, looked at his homemade (obviously) hour-glass
and said "Gee, it's the Renaissance; I'd better build a
helicopter." The point of this entry, then, is simply to
draw your attention to how interconnected European
culture and Islamic culture (not all Arabs, by the way)
used to be, and how there is a link between the glorious
age of Muslin science and culture (800-1300) and the
beginnings of the Italian Renaissance. (I am not making
the mistake of saying that that which comes first
necessarily causes that which comes second. I am simply
saying it's a good idea to know what came before you.
After Islam's rapid spread
from Spain to India, Muslims founded the city of Baghdad
in 800, and it is here that the Muslim quest for
knowledge begins, the manifestation of an insatiable
curiosity (to use Einstein's choice phrase from many
centuries later) "to figure out how the Old Man runs the
universe." It is in Baghdad that the Muslims founded
their great school of translation, the incredible
ambition of which was to translate as much as they could
find of science, astronomy, mathematics, music,
geography and philosophy—whatever remained
of Classical Greek knowledge. It meant going even
further afield—to India—to study the mathematics and
philosophy of those who had written in classical
Sanskrit centuries earlier.
In 800 this was by no means an easy task. Much classical Greek writing had not survived the centuries of neglect by Christians inimical to "pagan" thought. As early as the year 500, the great library at Alexandria was a ruin and, a few years later, Justinian closed Plato's Academy in Athens because it was a hotbed of pagan (non-Christian) philosophy. Arab scholars, then, translated into Arabic the few Greek texts that remained, or translated from languages into which the Greek originals had previously been translated by scholars who had left Greece for parts east. These were mainly exiled Nestorian Christians from Greece, and Classical Greek scholars from Plato's academy who had fled to Persia, where they founded a great center of learning at Jundishapur (before the coming of Islam) and translated much of their material into Aramaic, the lingua franca of the Middle East at the time. After Baghdad, the Nuslims later started equally fine centers of scholarship in Spain at Cordoba and Toledo.
Transmission of this glorious knowledge from the Muslim world into Italy happened primarily through Spain and Sicily; that is, the great courts of learning in Cordoba and the pre-Crusades court of Norman Sicily in the 12th century. It is in Sicily, particularly, that Norman tolerance provided for the coexistence of Byzantine Greek, Italian Christian, and Muslim scholars. It was, perhaps, the last great period of human tolerance in European history.
One of the great medical translators from Arabic into Latin was Constantine of Carthage (known as "The African"). In the middle of the 11th century, he came to teach at the medical school in Salerno, the first of its kind in Europe, bringing with him his vast library of Arabic medical works, including, no doubt, Avicenna's Canon of Medicine. That work was translated into Latin and used as a text in European medical schools well into the 17th century, and parts of it were current as late as the early 19th century! In 1127, a European translator, Stefano of Pisa, reported that scholars of medicine were all still found in Sicily and Salerno, and were generally persons who knew Arabic. Again, we shouldn't set up a necessary chain of cause and effect; yet, there is surely a link between earlier Muslim medical thought (the view that "God has provided a cure for all disease"; therefore, it is our rational duty to find those cures) and the final abandoning by the Christian west of the view that prayer and mortification of the flesh cured illness. [Also see 2011 update in bibliography, below.]
In Palermo, Emperor Frederick II (1194-1250), in spite of the Crusades, was driven by his own enormous intellectual curiosity to explore Arabic culture. He is known for his exchanges of letters on philosophy and science with Arab scholars. A prominent member of the court of Frederick in Palermo was the great Italian mathematician, Leonardo Fibonacci, the inventor of the arithmetic series that bears his name. (Quick! what is the next number in this series: 4, 1, 5, 6, 11, 17...)? He had studied with Arab mathematicians, and he is also the reason you don't have to do that last problem as "IV, I, V, VI, XI, XVII..."; that is, he introduced "Arabic" numerals into Europe (they were really Indian numerals, which the Arabs had picked up in their wanderings. More directly below, in box, on "Islamic Science's India Connection").
is also responsible for giving us a Latin translation
(from the Arabic translation of the Greek) of Ptolemy's
Almagest, and for translating the original works
of the great Muslim astronomer, Al-Farghini. Frederick
II's interests are so wide ranging that it is no wonder
he was well read in Arab philosophy and science. He
expanded the medical school in Salerno and started the
University of Naples, which, today, still bears his
Michael Scot (1217-1240) was perhaps the
finest mind at the court of Frederick in Palermo. From
Scotland, he had worked at the great Arab translation
center in Toledo and is responsible for giving us Latin
versions of the philosophical works of Avicenna and
Averroës, particularly the latter's commentaries on
Aristotle. From royal courts to fledgling universities,
Italy in the 1100s and 1200s, then, seems to be a scene
of Europeans scurrying to read the next installments of
works translated from Arabic, particularly in
philosophy, medicine and astronomy. Scot also assisted
Frederick II in the drawing up of the Constitution of Melfi.
added - Sept 29, 2017)
Muslim religious philosophy is of particular interest. Al-Kindi (d. after 870) was the first important Muslim philosopher. He held and taught that revealed truth (religion) and rational truth were not in conflict, but were complementary, even identical. Then, Al-Farabi (874-950) elevated philosophy even above the revealed truth of the sharia, the religious law of Islam, and held that our goal is to develop our rational faculty.
Ibn Sina (981-1037), known in the west
by the Latin name, Avicenna,
is often called by Westerners the "Arab Leonardo"
(although he was Persian!) for the amazing breadth of
his knowledge in medicine, philosophy, mathematics, and
astronomy. In addition to his Canon of Medicine
(mentioned above), he is certainly one of the most
remarkable thinkers of the Middle Ages and the most
important and original of all Muslim philosophers. His
held that religion was a kind of philosophy for the
masses; the goal of all revealed truth (including his
own Islam) was to lead us to our highest state, one of
philosophic contemplation. He held the particularly
original idea that intellectual discovery implies an
intuitive act of knowledge. The idea of the intuitive
intellect working outside of the methodical process of
collecting facts and deduction has again become quite
Perhaps Ibn-Rushid (Averroës) (1128 -1198) is also of great interest to us. He wrote many commentaries on Aristotle and is known in Islamic philosophy simply as "The Commentator." His works in religious philosophy were widely read in Europe, especially by Thomas Aquinas, the point, of course, being not that one was right and the other wrong, but that one of the greatest of European medieval philosophers honed his own sharp intellect by dealing with his Muslim predecessor. Averroës' work in law, medicine, and astronomy were also highly regarded.
Abubacer (c. 1105 – 1185) Abubacer Ibn Tofail was an Andalusian Muslim writer, philosopher, Islamic theologian and physician. He is most famous for his philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, also known as Philosophus Autodidactus in the Western world. It is considered a sort of prototype Robinson Crusoe and tells the story of a feral child living alone on a desert island, who, without contact with other human beings, discovers ultimate truth through a systematic process of reasoned inquiry. It was widely read in translation in Europe and had a profound influence on Renaissance thinkers such as Pico della Mirandola, who is thought to have made the first translation from Arabic into Latin. It was admired by such as Baruch Spinoza and is considered influential in the emergence of European rationalism and empiricism. (Also noted under 'Literature,' below.)
Ibn Khaldun (b. 1332, Tunis -d.1406, Egypt) – a strange case of no influence! (I include this only because it's unbelievable.) (Thanks to Prof. Warren Johnson for calling this to my attention.)
its kinds and geographical distribution; - Nomadic
societies, tribes and savage peoples; - States,
the spiritual and temporal powers, and political ranks;
- Sedentary societies, cities and provinces; - Crafts,
means of livelihood and economic activity; - Learning
and the ways in which it is acquired.
Burnett of the Warburg Institute in London has
spoken of the...
In other words, he was too late. Indeed, Ibn Khaldun came at the twilight of the great Arab/Islamic culture started by the founding of Baghdad. But 'twilight' is much too romantic a word —it was a violent and brutal nightfall. Ibn Khaldun, himself, lived to see Tamerlane destroy both Damascus and Baghad and then butcher the inhabitants.
...lamentable tendency of many Western scholars to restrict the study of Arabic science and philosophy from the classical period to the 12th century and not take any notice of what happened in the Islamic world after the 12th century, which is after the death of Averroes in 1198. Averroes...was regarded by Medieval Europe as the greatest scholar of the Muslim world....but the reverence for this undoubtedly great scientist and thinker had a down side in that it imposed a self-limiting approach based on the assumption that scholarship in the Islamic world climaxed during his lifetime and came to an end with his death. As a consequence, Arabic authorities were simply not considered important as reference points after the 12th century...
Since Islam forbids
depictions of God and, indeed, discourages rendering any
human or animal life at all, there developed great
attention to geometric design in Arab art and
architecture. It is the same principle that led to the
various schools of intricate and
flowing —but abstract— Arabic script used to write the
Koran. Obviously, a similar proscription is not part of
Christianity or the art of the European Renaissance.
...let us appeal to any one who has seen the mosques and palaces of Fez, or some of the cathedrals in Spain, built by the Moors: one model of this sort is the church of Burgos; and even in this island there are not wanting several examples of the same: such buildings have been vulgarly called Modern Gothic, but their true appellation is Arabic, Saracenic, or Moresque. This manner was introduced into Europe through Spain; learning flourished among the Arabians all the time that their dominion was in full power; they studied philosophy, mathematics, physics, and poetry. The love of learning was at once excited, in all places that were not at too great distance from Spain these authors were read, and such of the Greek authors as they had translated into Arabic, were from thence turned into Latin. The physics and philosophy of the Arabians spread themselves in Europe, and with these their architecture: many churches were built after the Saracenic mode...
(Cited in, Wren, Christopher, the Junior (1675-1747), Parentalia: or, Memoirs of the family of the Wrens, viz. of Mathew Bishop, printed for T. Osborn; and R. Dodsley, London, 1750.)
Hardly mentioned at all
when you read about the Arab influence in European
thought is the extent to which Arab literature might
have had any influence on European medieval literature.
There are a number of possibilities. It may be that the
Arab habit of composing popular poetry in vernacular
Arabic in Sicily and Spain had some influence on the
subsequent "vernacularization" of not only European
court poetry and song in the Provence (the Troubadours)
and Sicily, but even in the beginnings of great European
[See the paragraph on Abubacer a few paragraphs above this one in the section on Philosophy. His Hayy ibn Yaqdhan is the prototype for all subsequent novels, from Robinson Crusoe to Tarzan, that deal with the isolated individual alone in the world, coming of age and reason.]
In A History of
Islamic Sicily, Aziz Ahmad dwells on the
controversial connection between Dante's Divine
Comedy and prior Islamic works of the same nature.
There is no real conclusion to be drawn, except the
possibility that our great originator of non-Latin
Romance literature got some inspiration from somewhere.
Dante certainly knew of Avicenna and Averroës through
Latin translation; in the Divine Comedy, he
places them both in Purgatory with the great
pre-Christian scholars of ancient Greece. (Dante was not
so kind to Mohammed, himself, though, who, in Canto 28,
is in Hell as a Sower of Discord). Did Dante also know
(through its Latin or Early French translations) of The Book of the Scale,
an earlier Arab eschatological work that has interesting
parallels in the Divine Comedy? Again, we should
beware of post hoc reasoning, but it is an
intriguing possibility. (The Book of the Scale is the common
English translation of Liber Scale Machometi, the Latin
translation of the Arabic Kitab al Miraj, the Muslim book about
Muhammad's miraculous night journey into the heavens.
The Latin version would have been available to Dante;
the graphic descriptions in the book of the punishments
in Hell are what have lead some scholars to make the
comparison to The
Divine Comedy. Also see the entry on Enrico Cerulli.)
It was the
contributions of minds such as those mentioned, above,
that prompted Robert Briffault (in The Making of
Humanity) to write:
|It was under the influence of the Arabs and Moorish revival of culture and not in the 15th century, that a real renaissance took place... After steadily sinking lower and lower into barbarism, it [Europe] had reached the darkest depths of ignorance and degradation when cities of the Saracenic world, Baghdad, Cairo, Cordova, and Toledo, were growing centers of civilization and intellectual activity. It was there that the new life arose which was to grow into a new phase of human evolution. From the time when the influence of their culture made itself felt, began the stirring of new life.|
Those are strong words that I do not entirely accept. Yet they remind us that our ethnocentric view of our own cultural history as a straightforward chain of events is not very helpful. Perhaps we should step back and view all of culture as a vast web of ideas; they may spring forth in different places at different times, or many of them at the same time, unnoticed elsewhere.
Ahmad, Aziz. A History of
Islamic Sicily. New York: Columbia Univ. Press,
Blair, Sheila S. & Jonathan
M. Boom. The Art and Architecture of Islam,
1250-1800. Yale University Press, 1994.
Briffault, Robert. The Making of Humanity. London: 1938.
Gutas, Dimitri. Greek Thought, Arabic Culture. London: Routledge, 1998.
Kumar, Alok and S. Montgomery. "Islamic Science's India Connection" in Aramco World, Sept/Oct 2017.
Lunde, Paul. "Ishbiliyah: Islamic
Seville". Aramco World 44.1 (Jan/Feb) 1993.
Marmura, Micahel E. "Avicenna." The
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: MacMillan,
Rahman, Fazlur. "Islamic
Philosophy." The Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
New York: MacMillan, 1967.
Rosenthal, Franz. The
Classical Heritage in Islam. Trans. Emile and
Jenny Marmorstein. In series: Arabic Thought and
Culture. London: Routledge, 1992.
Saab, Hassan. "Ibn
Khaldun." The Encyclopedia of
Philosophy. New York: MacMillan, 1967.
Sarton George. Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. I-III. Baltimore: Wilkins and Wilkens, 1950.
Tschanz, David W. "The Arab Roots
of European Medicine." Aramco World May/June
Unesco Courier, The.
September, 1986. Title of issue: "Averroes and
Maimonides: Two Master Minds of the 12th
Century". Paris: Unesco, 1986.
Wilson, N.G. From Byzantium
to Italy; Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance.
London: Duckworth, 1992.
2011 update: See "Pioneer
Physicians" by David Tschanz in the journal, Saudi Aramco World,
January/February 2011, at this