(relevant entries are linked from within the text)
The history of the entire complex that includes both this museum/ex-monastery as well as the adjacent fortress of Sant'Elmo is at this link. The two structures are atop the Vomero hill of Naples and are the most visible landmarks of the city.
The courtyard is known for the presence of a large number of stone skulls - so-called memento mori, ("remember you must die"). (See this link.)
A modern photograph of the memento mori in this courtyard is also seen here.