© Jeff Matthews Sardinia index
& TIME-LINE of SARDINIAN HISTORY
is a "semi-autonomous" region of Italy; a
statute of autonomy grants special
administrative powers to Sardinia and four other
—Area: 24,090 km2
(9,301.2 sq mi) (marginally smaller than
Sicily); for comparison, that is larger than the
US state of New Jersey and larger than the state
of Israel; the approximate dimensions of the
island (pictured) are 260 x 115 km (160 x 70
capital is Cagilari, the most populous city on
Sardinia with 157,780 inhabitants (as of 2008);
—After Cagliari, the
two largest cities are Sassari (pop. 120,000)
and Olbia (pop. 45,000);
—There are eight (8)
provinces in the region of Sardinia: Cagliari,
Carbonia-Iglesias, Nuoro, Ogliastra,
Olbia-Tempio, Oristano, Sassari, and Medio
(as of 2008): 1,670,219;
density:69.3/km2 (179.6/sq mi);
(villages, towns and cities): 377;
—There are three
international airports: Cagliari, Olbia, and
—Sardinia has a very
low birth rate: 8.1 per 1,000 population per
year (yearly average from 2002-2005); that is
the second lowest regional birth rate in Italy
(Italy, itself, as a nation, is near the bottom of
the list on most rankings of birth rate);
expectancy in Sardinia is 81.1 years (84.5 for
women and 77.7 for men), marginally higher than
the national average;
—Sardinia has one of the highest rates of
centenarians in the world: (22 centenarians per
simplified form, this is a time-line of Sardinian
Before 6000 BC—some traces of human
After 6000 BC— Humans settle in Gallura
and northern Sardinia.
4th centuty BC—presence of the Ozieri
culture, late Neolithic and Copper Age communities in the
north of Sardinia. Their implements, caves dwellings and
rock-cut tombs are well-known in archaeology.
1800 BC— The beginning
of the Nuraghic
civilization, the builders of the still iconic structures
found throughout the island.
Carthaginians conquer and replace the Phoenicians as the
main settlers on the island.
1000 BC— The
Phoenicians start to colonize the island.
238 BC—The Carthaginians surrender the
island to the Romans.
456 AD—The end of the
Roman occupation of Sardinia.
456-534 AD—The island
is subjected to raids by the Vandals.
534-710 AD—Sardinia is
ruled by the Byzantine empire.
700-900—The island is
subjected to increasing raids by Saracens and native
inhabitants largely desert the coasts for the rugged
independent Sardinia is ruled by a loose collection of
forms part of the regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae
("kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica"), a largely fictitious
entity proclaimed by Pope Boniface VIII that was meant to
be a gift by the Pope to James II, King of Aragon.
is taken over by the Aragonese and forms part of the
co-called “Crown of Aragon,” a
confederation of sea-faring entities owing allegiance to
the king of Aragon.
formation of the nation state of Spain (through the union
of the Castillian and Aragonese dynasties), Sardinian
becomes part of the Spanish Empire.
1700—The break-up of
the Spanish Empire cause the Wars of the Spanish
Succession, as a result of which Sardinia passes to
Austrian rule (as part of the now Austrian vice-realm of
1718—The Treaty of
London gives Sardinia to the Italian house of Savoy, whose
domain had been limited to the Piedmont in Northwestern
Italy. With that, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia is
born, the nucleus of the modern nation state of Italy.
1814—After the Napoleonic Wars, the
Congress of Vienna joins Piedmont-Sardinia with the
Kingdom of Liguria
(the capital of which is
1861—After the conquest
of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples) by
Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II , the king of
Piedmont-Sardinia proclaims the new nation of Italy,
including Sardinia, and becomes the first King of Italy.
1948—Sardinia becomes one of the five
special autonomous regions of Italy. This means that while
the Italian constitution is the law of the land, a special
statute of automy grants administrative powers to these
regions, powers that the other regions of Italy do not
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