Royal Palace at Capodimonte was begun in 1738 during the
reign of Charles III of Bourbon.
Eventually it would be one of four such palaces used by
the Bourbons during their rule of the Kingdom of Naples.
(The others are: the Palace at
Caserta, another on the slopes of Vesuvius in
Portici near Herculaneum,
and, of course, the Royal Palace
in the heart of the city, itself.) The palace and
grounds at Capodimonte were spread over 300 acres of
farmland, converting the land from agricultural use into
a vast hunting reserve for the royal family(see box
below). The original wish of Charles III of Bourbon was
for a “royal pleasure haunt” at Capodimonte—a
hunting ground with a lodge. The grounds were thus
turned into a botanical marvel, with brushwood,
evergreen oak, chestnut, elm, fig trees, wild olives and
myrtle groves, all designed to foster the various types
of game introduced into the wood. The original design
for the whole area, both palace and hunting grounds, was
probably by Antonio Canevari (also the architect for the
palace at Portici); Ferdinando Fuga
laid out the entrance courtyard with four radiating
avenues and the central drive.
Ferdinando Sanfelice designed the Royal Porcelain
Works on the grounds as well as the nearby church of San
Gennaro, ordered built by Charles as the house of
worship for workers involved in the construction and
maintenance of palace and grounds.
Part of the grounds was turned into a well-husbanded ‘English Garden’ in the 1820s. Much of the grounds, however, was kept in a wild and natural state until the middle of the nineteenth century when broad footpaths were laid, radiating out from the palace, itself, such as to give the grounds more the effect of a garden for strolling rather than hunting. Over the years, a number of secondary buildings were constructed, some of them self-perpetuating in the sense that they provided agricultural services to maintain the grounds, themselves.
|This site was one of the 22
Royal Bourbon properties in the Kingdom of
Naples. They range from the large Royal palaces
to smaller residences and hunting lodges. This
is the complete list with links to entries:
Demanio di Calvi
Today, the palace
houses a number of significant displays, among which are
the Historical Apartment, the Armory, the Porcelain
Room, and, of course, the items in the collection of the
National Art Gallery (see separate section, immediately
below). The former Royal Wood is a public park, well
frequented by Neapolitans.
add National Art Gallery &
Sergio Ortolani June 2016
The Pinacoteca nazionale di Napoli / National Art Gallery of Naples
The current collection of the Capodimonte National Art Gallery of Naples comprises some 1700 paintings and other objects of arts, including works by Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Raphael, Caravaggio, and Botticelli. As noted above, the premises started life as one of the four Bourbon Royal Palaces. It was a royal residence, but one particularly well stocked with art since the first Bourbon monarch, Charles III, inherited a vast collection from his mother Elisabeth Farnese. (That collection, in turn, had been assembled from various Farnese estates in Parma and Piacenza and the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, and that latter collection had been started by Alessandro Farnese (later Pope Paul III - 1468-1549). Some portions of the inherited Farnese collection are elsewhere in Naples at the Archaeological museum.) The Farnese collection plus later additions under the Bourbons are the nucleus of the gallery.
The Influence of Sergio Ortolani (1896-1949)
Cursory sources simply say that Capodimonte opened as the National Art Gallery in 1957. That is true, but it is hard to see how that might have happened without the lifelong dedication of Sergio Ortolani, one of the most active Italian art historians of the 20th century. It is hard to overstate his importance as somewhat the father of modern museology (or museography or —in plain language— how museums should be set up and run) in Naples. His main interests were art history, art restoration, and, importantly, organizing the vast amount of visual art on Italian territory, his own specialty being southern Italy and, in particular, the Campania region, particularly the Capodimonte palace. He started actively publishing monographs in art history in the 1920s in Florence and Rome and was appointed inspector for the administration of Antiquites and Fine Arts, specifically within the Royal Supertendency for Medieval and Modern Art of Campania, at which point he moved definitively to Naples from Florence, where he had studied and been active.
source: I have relied on information in the
entry for ORTOLANI, Sergio by Federica De
Rosa in the Treccani Dizionario Biografico
[Also note this entry on
the Porcelain factory